a catalog of biological databases
|Description:||InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites.|
|University/Institution:||European Bioinformatics Institute|
|Address:||European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI), Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SD, UK|
|Contact name (PI/Team):||Robert D. Finn|
|Contact email (PI/Helpdesk):||firstname.lastname@example.org|
InterPro in 2019: improving coverage, classification and access to protein sequence annotations. [PMID: 30398656]
The InterPro database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/) classifies protein sequences into families and predicts the presence of functionally important domains and sites. Here, we report recent developments with InterPro (version 70.0) and its associated software, including an 18% growth in the size of the database in terms on new InterPro entries, updates to content, the inclusion of an additional entry type, refined modelling of discontinuous domains, and the development of a new programmatic interface and website. These developments extend and enrich the information provided by InterPro, and provide greater flexibility in terms of data access. We also show that InterPro's sequence coverage has kept pace with the growth of UniProtKB, and discuss how our evaluation of residue coverage may help guide future curation activities.
Genome properties in 2019: a new companion database to InterPro for the inference of complete functional attributes. [PMID: 30364992]
Automatic annotation of protein function is routinely applied to newly sequenced genomes. While this provides a fine-grained view of an organism's functional protein repertoire, proteins, more commonly function in a coordinated manner, such as in pathways or multimeric complexes. Genome Properties (GPs) define such functional entities as a series of steps, originally described by either TIGRFAMs or Pfam entries. To increase the scope of coverage, we have migrated GPs to function as a companion resource utilizing InterPro entries. Having introduced GPs-specific versioned releases, we provide software and data via a GitHub repository, and have developed a new web interface to GPs (available at https://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/genomeproperties). In addition to exploring each of the 1286 GPs, the website contains GPs pre-calculated for a representative set of proteomes; these results can be used to profile GPs phylogenetically via an interactive viewer. Users can upload novel data to the viewer for comparison with the pre-calculated results. Over the last year, we have added ?700 new GPs, increasing the coverage of eukaryotic systems, as well as increasing general coverage through automatic generation of GPs from related resources. All data are freely available via the website and the GitHub repository.
InterPro in 2017-beyond protein family and domain annotations. [PMID: 27899635]
InterPro (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/) is a freely available database used to classify protein sequences into families and to predict the presence of important domains and sites. InterProScan is the underlying software that allows both protein and nucleic acid sequences to be searched against InterPro's predictive models, which are provided by its member databases. Here, we report recent developments with InterPro and its associated software, including the addition of two new databases (SFLD and CDD), and the functionality to include residue-level annotation and prediction of intrinsic disorder. These developments enrich the annotations provided by InterPro, increase the overall number of residues annotated and allow more specific functional inferences. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
GO annotation in InterPro: why stability does not indicate accuracy in a sea of changing annotations. [PMID: 26994912]
The removal of annotation from biological databases is often perceived as an indicator of erroneous annotation. As a corollary, annotation stability is considered to be a measure of reliability. However, diverse data-driven events can affect the stability of annotations in both primary protein sequence databases and the protein family databases that are built upon the sequence databases and used to help annotate them. Here, we describe some of these events and their consequences for the InterPro database, and demonstrate that annotation removal or reassignment is not always linked to incorrect annotation by the curator. Database URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.
The InterPro protein families database: the classification resource after 15 years. [PMID: 25428371]
The InterPro database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/) is a freely available resource that can be used to classify sequences into protein families and to predict the presence of important domains and sites. Central to the InterPro database are predictive models, known as signatures, from a range of different protein family databases that have different biological focuses and use different methodological approaches to classify protein families and domains. InterPro integrates these signatures, capitalizing on the respective strengths of the individual databases, to produce a powerful protein classification resource. Here, we report on the status of InterPro as it enters its 15th year of operation, and give an overview of new developments with the database and its associated Web interfaces and software. In particular, the new domain architecture search tool is described and the process of mapping of Gene Ontology terms to InterPro is outlined. We also discuss the challenges faced by the resource given the explosive growth in sequence data in recent years. InterPro (version 48.0) contains 36,766 member database signatures integrated into 26,238 InterPro entries, an increase of over 3993 entries (5081 signatures), since 2012. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
InterProScan 5: genome-scale protein function classification. [PMID: 24451626]
MOTIVATION: Robust large-scale sequence analysis is a major challenge in modern genomic science, where biologists are frequently trying to characterize many millions of sequences. Here, we describe a new Java-based architecture for the widely used protein function prediction software package InterProScan. Developments include improvements and additions to the outputs of the software and the complete reimplementation of the software framework, resulting in a flexible and stable system that is able to use both multiprocessor machines and/or conventional clusters to achieve scalable distributed data analysis. InterProScan is freely available for download from the EMBl-EBI FTP site and the open source code is hosted at Google Code.
InterPro in 2011: new developments in the family and domain prediction database. [PMID: 22096229]
InterPro (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/) is a database that integrates diverse information about protein families, domains and functional sites, and makes it freely available to the public via Web-based interfaces and services. Central to the database are diagnostic models, known as signatures, against which protein sequences can be searched to determine their potential function. InterPro has utility in the large-scale analysis of whole genomes and meta-genomes, as well as in characterizing individual protein sequences. Herein we give an overview of new developments in the database and its associated software since 2009, including updates to database content, curation processes and Web and programmatic interfaces.
InterPro: the integrative protein signature database. [PMID: 18940856]
The InterPro database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/) integrates together predictive models or 'signatures' representing protein domains, families and functional sites from multiple, diverse source databases: Gene3D, PANTHER, Pfam, PIRSF, PRINTS, ProDom, PROSITE, SMART, SUPERFAMILY and TIGRFAMs. Integration is performed manually and approximately half of the total approximately 58,000 signatures available in the source databases belong to an InterPro entry. Recently, we have started to also display the remaining un-integrated signatures via our web interface. Other developments include the provision of non-signature data, such as structural data, in new XML files on our FTP site, as well as the inclusion of matchless UniProtKB proteins in the existing match XML files. The web interface has been extended and now links out to the ADAN predicted protein-protein interaction database and the SPICE and Dasty viewers. The latest public release (v18.0) covers 79.8% of UniProtKB (v14.1) and consists of 16 549 entries. InterPro data may be accessed either via the web address above, via web services, by downloading files by anonymous FTP or by using the InterProScan search software (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/InterProScan/).
New developments in the InterPro database. [PMID: 17202162]
InterPro is an integrated resource for protein families, domains and functional sites, which integrates the following protein signature databases: PROSITE, PRINTS, ProDom, Pfam, SMART, TIGRFAMs, PIRSF, SUPERFAMILY, Gene3D and PANTHER. The latter two new member databases have been integrated since the last publication in this journal. There have been several new developments in InterPro, including an additional reading field, new database links, extensions to the web interface and additional match XML files. InterPro has always provided matches to UniProtKB proteins on the website and in the match XML file on the FTP site. Additional matches to proteins in UniParc (UniProt archive) are now available for download in the new match XML files only. The latest InterPro release (13.0) contains more than 13 000 entries, covering over 78% of all proteins in UniProtKB. The database is available for text- and sequence-based searches via a webserver (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro), and for download by anonymous FTP (ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/interpro). The InterProScan search tool is now also available via a web service at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/webservices/WSInterProScan.html.
[InterPro as a new tool for whole genome analysis. A comparative analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli as a case study] [PMID: 16909843]
InterPro was developed as a new integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites to rationalize the complementary efforts of the PROSITE, PRINTS, Pfam and ProDom database projects and has applications in computational functional classification of newly determined sequences lacking biochemical characterization and in comparative genome analysis. InterPro contains over 3500 entries, with more than 1000000 hits in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL. The database is accessible for text- and sequence-based searches at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/. InterPro was used for whole proteome analysis of the pathogenic microorganism, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and comparison with the predicted protein coding sequences of the complete genomes of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. 64.8% of the M. tuberculosis proteins in the proteome matched InterPro entries, and these could be classified according to function. The comparison with B. subtilis and E. coli provided information on the most common protein families and domains, and the most highly represented families in each organism. InterPro thus provides a useful tool for global views of whole proteomes and their compositions.
InterPro, progress and status in 2005. [PMID: 15608177]
InterPro, an integrated documentation resource of protein families, domains and functional sites, was created to integrate the major protein signature databases. Currently, it includes PROSITE, Pfam, PRINTS, ProDom, SMART, TIGRFAMs, PIRSF and SUPERFAMILY. Signatures are manually integrated into InterPro entries that are curated to provide biological and functional information. Annotation is provided in an abstract, Gene Ontology mapping and links to specialized databases. New features of InterPro include extended protein match views, taxonomic range information and protein 3D structure data. One of the new match views is the InterPro Domain Architecture view, which shows the domain composition of protein matches. Two new entry types were introduced to better describe InterPro entries: these are active site and binding site. PIRSF and the structure-based SUPERFAMILY are the latest member databases to join InterPro, and CATH and PANTHER are soon to be integrated. InterPro release 8.0 contains 11 007 entries, representing 2573 domains, 8166 families, 201 repeats, 26 active sites, 21 binding sites and 20 post-translational modification sites. InterPro covers over 78% of all proteins in the Swiss-Prot and TrEMBL components of UniProt. The database is available for text- and sequence-based searches via a webserver (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro), and for download by anonymous FTP (ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/interpro).
The InterPro Database, 2003 brings increased coverage and new features. [PMID: 12520011]
InterPro, an integrated documentation resource of protein families, domains and functional sites, was created in 1999 as a means of amalgamating the major protein signature databases into one comprehensive resource. PROSITE, Pfam, PRINTS, ProDom, SMART and TIGRFAMs have been manually integrated and curated and are available in InterPro for text- and sequence-based searching. The results are provided in a single format that rationalises the results that would be obtained by searching the member databases individually. The latest release of InterPro contains 5629 entries describing 4280 families, 1239 domains, 95 repeats and 15 post-translational modifications. Currently, the combined signatures in InterPro cover more than 74% of all proteins in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL, an increase of nearly 15% since the inception of InterPro. New features of the database include improved searching capabilities and enhanced graphical user interfaces for visualisation of the data. The database is available via a webserver (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro) and anonymous FTP (ftp://ftp.ebi.ac.uk/pub/databases/interpro).
InterPro: an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites. [PMID: 12230031]
The exponential increase in the submission of nucleotide sequences to the nucleotide sequence database by genome sequencing centres has resulted in a need for rapid, automatic methods for classification of the resulting protein sequences. There are several signature and sequence cluster-based methods for protein classification, each resource having distinct areas of optimum application owing to the differences in the underlying analysis methods. In recognition of this, InterPro was developed as an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites, to rationalise the complementary efforts of the individual protein signature database projects. The member databases - PRINTS, PROSITE, Pfam, ProDom, SMART and TIGRFAMs - form the InterPro core. Related signatures from each member database are unified into single InterPro entries. Each InterPro entry includes a unique accession number, functional descriptions and literature references, and links are made back to the relevant member database(s). Release 4.0 of InterPro (November 2001) contains 4,691 entries, representing 3,532 families, 1,068 domains, 74 repeats and 15 sites of post-translational modification (PTMs) encoded by different regular expressions, profiles, fingerprints and hidden Markov models (HMMs). Each InterPro entry lists all the matches against SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL (2,141,621 InterPro hits from 586,124 SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL protein sequences). The database is freely accessible for text- and sequence-based searches.
Application of InterPro for the functional classification of the proteins of fish origin in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL. [PMID: 11426064]
InterPro (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/) is an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and sites, developed initially as a means of rationalizing the complementary efforts of the PROSITE, PRINTS, Pfam and ProDom database projects. It is a useful resource that aids the functional classification of proteins. Almost 90% of the actinopterygii protein sequences from SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL can be classified using InterPro. Over 30% of the actinopterygii protein sequences currently in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL are of mitochondrial origin, the majority of which belong to the cytochrome b/b6 family. InterPro also gives insights into the domain composition of the classified proteins and has applications in the functional classification of newly determined sequences lacking biochemical characterization, and in comparative genome analysis. A comparison of the actinopterygii protein sequences against the sequences of other eukaryotes confirms the high representation of eukaryotic protein kinase in the organisms studied. The comparisons also show that, based on InterPro families, the trans-species evolution of MHC class I and II molecules in mammals and teleost fish can be recognized.
The InterPro database, an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites. [PMID: 11125043]
Signature databases are vital tools for identifying distant relationships in novel sequences and hence for inferring protein function. InterPro is an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites, which amalgamates the efforts of the PROSITE, PRINTS, Pfam and ProDom database projects. Each InterPro entry includes a functional description, annotation, literature references and links back to the relevant member database(s). Release 2.0 of InterPro (October 2000) contains over 3000 entries, representing families, domains, repeats and sites of post-translational modification encoded by a total of 6804 different regular expressions, profiles, fingerprints and Hidden Markov Models. Each InterPro entry lists all the matches against SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL (more than 1,000,000 hits from 462,500 proteins in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL). The database is accessible for text- and sequence-based searches at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/. Questions can be emailed to email@example.com.
InterPro--an integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites. [PMID: 11159333]
InterPro is a new integrated documentation resource for protein families, domains and functional sites, developed initially as a means of rationalising the complementary efforts of the PROSITE, PRINTS, Pfam and ProDom database projects. Merged annotations from PRINTS, PROSITE and Pfam form the InterPro core. Each combined InterPro entry includes functional descriptions and literature references, and links are made back to the relevant parent database(s), allowing users to see at a glance whether a particular family or domain has associated patterns, profiles, fingerprints, etc. Merged and individual entries (i.e. those that have no counterpart in the companion resources) are assigned unique accession numbers. Release 1.2 of InterPro (June 2000) contains over 3000 entries, representing families, domains, repeats and sites of post-translational modification (PTMs) encoded by 6581 different regular expressions, profiles, fingerprints and Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). Each InterPro entry lists all the matches against SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL (more than 1000000 hits from 264333 different proteins out of 384572 in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL).
Website review: interPro (the integrated resource of protein domains and functional sites). [PMID: 11119311]
The family and motif databases, PROSITE, PRINTS, Pfam and ProDom, have been integrated into a powerful resource for protein secondary annotation. As of June 2000, InterPro had processed 384 572 proteins in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL. Because the contributing databases have different clustering principles and scoring sensitivities, the combined assignments compliment each other for grouping protein families and delineating domains. The graphic displays of all matches above the scoring thresholds enables judgements to be made on the concordances or differences between the assignments. The website links can be used to analyse novel sequences and for queries across the proteomes of 32 organisms, including the partial human set, by domain and/or protein family. An analysis of selected HtrA/DegQ proteases demonstrates the utility of this website for detailed comparative genomics. Further information on the project can be found at the European Bioinformatics Institute at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/