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Database Profile

General information

Full name: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
Description: KEGG is a database resource for understanding high-level functions and utilities of the biological system.
Year founded: 1995
Last update: 2018-05-10
Version: v86.1
Real time : Checking...
Country/Region: Japan
Data type:
Data object:
Database category:
Major organism:

Contact information

University/Institution: Kyoto University
Address: Uji,Kyoto 611-0011,Japan
City: Kyoto
Country/Region: Japan
Contact name (PI/Team): Minoru Kanehisa
Contact email (PI/Helpdesk):


KEGG: integrating viruses and cellular organisms. [PMID: 33125081]
Minoru Kanehisa, Miho Furumichi, Yoko Sato, Mari Ishiguro-Watanabe, Mao Tanabe

KEGG ( is a manually curated resource integrating eighteen databases categorized into systems, genomic, chemical and health information. It also provides KEGG mapping tools, which enable understanding of cellular and organism-level functions from genome sequences and other molecular datasets. KEGG mapping is a predictive method of reconstructing molecular network systems from molecular building blocks based on the concept of functional orthologs. Since the introduction of the KEGG NETWORK database, various diseases have been associated with network variants, which are perturbed molecular networks caused by human gene variants, viruses, other pathogens and environmental factors. The network variation maps are created as aligned sets of related networks showing, for example, how different viruses inhibit or activate specific cellular signaling pathways. The KEGG pathway maps are now integrated with network variation maps in the NETWORK database, as well as with conserved functional units of KEGG modules and reaction modules in the MODULE database. The KO database for functional orthologs continues to be improved and virus KOs are being expanded for better understanding of virus-cell interactions and for enabling prediction of viral perturbations.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2020:() | 21 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2021-03-06)
KEGG: new perspectives on genomes, pathways, diseases and drugs. [PMID: 27899662]
Kanehisa M, Furumichi M, Tanabe M, Sato Y, Morishima K.

KEGG ( or is an encyclopedia of genes and genomes. Assigning functional meanings to genes and genomes both at the molecular and higher levels is the primary objective of the KEGG database project. Molecular-level functions are stored in the KO (KEGG Orthology) database, where each KO is defined as a functional ortholog of genes and proteins. Higher-level functions are represented by networks of molecular interactions, reactions and relations in the forms of KEGG pathway maps, BRITE hierarchies and KEGG modules. In the past the KO database was developed for the purpose of defining nodes of molecular networks, but now the content has been expanded and the quality improved irrespective of whether or not the KOs appear in the three molecular network databases. The newly introduced addendum category of the GENES database is a collection of individual proteins whose functions are experimentally characterized and from which an increasing number of KOs are defined. Furthermore, the DISEASE and DRUG databases have been improved by systematic analysis of drug labels for better integration of diseases and drugs with the KEGG molecular networks. KEGG is moving towards becoming a comprehensive knowledge base for both functional interpretation and practical application of genomic information. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2017:45(D1) | 1735 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2021-03-06)
KEGG as a reference resource for gene and protein annotation. [PMID: 26476454]
Kanehisa M, Sato Y, Kawashima M, Furumichi M, Tanabe M.

KEGG ( or is an integrated database resource for biological interpretation of genome sequences and other high-throughput data. Molecular functions of genes and proteins are associated with ortholog groups and stored in the KEGG Orthology (KO) database. The KEGG pathway maps, BRITE hierarchies and KEGG modules are developed as networks of KO nodes, representing high-level functions of the cell and the organism. Currently, more than 4000 complete genomes are annotated with KOs in the KEGG GENES database, which can be used as a reference data set for KO assignment and subsequent reconstruction of KEGG pathways and other molecular networks. As an annotation resource, the following improvements have been made. First, each KO record is re-examined and associated with protein sequence data used in experiments of functional characterization. Second, the GENES database now includes viruses, plasmids, and the addendum category for functionally characterized proteins that are not represented in complete genomes. Third, new automatic annotation servers, BlastKOALA and GhostKOALA, are made available utilizing the non-redundant pangenome data set generated from the GENES database. As a resource for translational bioinformatics, various data sets are created for antimicrobial resistance and drug interaction networks. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2016:44(D1) | 1703 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2021-03-06)
KEGG Bioinformatics Resource for Plant Genomics and Metabolomics. [PMID: 26519400]
Minoru Kanehisa,

In the era of high-throughput biology it is necessary to develop not only elaborate computational methods but also well-curated databases that can be used as reference for data interpretation. KEGG ( ) is such a reference knowledge base with two specific aims. One is to compile knowledge on high-level functions of the cell and the organism in terms of the molecular interaction and reaction networks, which is implemented in KEGG pathway maps, BRITE functional hierarchies, and KEGG modules. The other is to expand knowledge on genes and proteins involved in the molecular networks from experimentally observed organisms to other organisms using the concept of orthologs, which is implemented in the KEGG Orthology (KO) system. Thus, KEGG is a generic resource applicable to all organisms and enables interpretation of high-level functions from genomic and molecular data. Here we first present a brief overview of the entire KEGG resource, and then give an introduction of how to use KEGG in plant genomics and metabolomics research.

Methods Mol. Biol.. 2016:1374() | 18 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2021-03-06)
Data, information, knowledge and principle: back to metabolism in KEGG. [PMID: 24214961]
Kanehisa M, Goto S, Sato Y, Kawashima M, Furumichi M, Tanabe M.

In the hierarchy of data, information and knowledge, computational methods play a major role in the initial processing of data to extract information, but they alone become less effective to compile knowledge from information. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) resource ( or has been developed as a reference knowledge base to assist this latter process. In particular, the KEGG pathway maps are widely used for biological interpretation of genome sequences and other high-throughput data. The link from genomes to pathways is made through the KEGG Orthology system, a collection of manually defined ortholog groups identified by K numbers. To better automate this interpretation process the KEGG modules defined by Boolean expressions of K numbers have been expanded and improved. Once genes in a genome are annotated with K numbers, the KEGG modules can be computationally evaluated revealing metabolic capacities and other phenotypic features. The reaction modules, which represent chemical units of reactions, have been used to analyze design principles of metabolic networks and also to improve the definition of K numbers and associated annotations. For translational bioinformatics, the KEGG MEDICUS resource has been developed by integrating drug labels (package inserts) used in society.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2014:42(Database issue) | 1473 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2021-03-06)
Molecular network analysis of diseases and drugs in KEGG. [PMID: 23192552]
Minoru Kanehisa,

KEGG ( is an integrated database resource for linking genomes or molecular datasets to molecular networks (pathways, etc.) representing higher-level systemic functions of the cell, the organism, and the ecosystem. Major efforts have been undertaken for capturing and representing experimental knowledge as manually drawn KEGG pathway maps and for genome-based generalization of experimental knowledge through the KEGG Orthology (KO) system. Current knowledge on diseases and drugs has also been integrated in the KEGG pathway maps, especially in terms of known disease genes and drug targets. Thus, KEGG can be used as a reference knowledge base for integration and interpretation of large-scale datasets generated by high-throughput experimental technologies, as well for finding their practical values. Here we give an introduction to the KEGG Mapper tools, especially for understanding disease mechanisms and adverse drug interactions.

Methods Mol. Biol.. 2013:939() | 33 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2021-03-06)
KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets. [PMID: 22080510]
Kanehisa M, Goto S, Sato Y, Furumichi M, Tanabe M.

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG, or is a database resource that integrates genomic, chemical and systemic functional information. In particular, gene catalogs from completely sequenced genomes are linked to higher-level systemic functions of the cell, the organism and the ecosystem. Major efforts have been undertaken to manually create a knowledge base for such systemic functions by capturing and organizing experimental knowledge in computable forms; namely, in the forms of KEGG pathway maps, BRITE functional hierarchies and KEGG modules. Continuous efforts have also been made to develop and improve the cross-species annotation procedure for linking genomes to the molecular networks through the KEGG Orthology system. Here we report KEGG Mapper, a collection of tools for KEGG PATHWAY, BRITE and MODULE mapping, enabling integration and interpretation of large-scale data sets. We also report a variant of the KEGG mapping procedure to extend the knowledge base, where different types of data and knowledge, such as disease genes and drug targets, are integrated as part of the KEGG molecular networks. Finally, we describe recent enhancements to the KEGG content, especially the incorporation of disease and drug information used in practice and in society, to support translational bioinformatics.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2012:40(Database issue) | 2118 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2021-03-06)
KEGG for representation and analysis of molecular networks involving diseases and drugs. [PMID: 19880382]
Kanehisa M, Goto S, Furumichi M, Tanabe M, Hirakawa M.

Most human diseases are complex multi-factorial diseases resulting from the combination of various genetic and environmental factors. In the KEGG database resource (, diseases are viewed as perturbed states of the molecular system, and drugs as perturbants to the molecular system. Disease information is computerized in two forms: pathway maps and gene/molecule lists. The KEGG PATHWAY database contains pathway maps for the molecular systems in both normal and perturbed states. In the KEGG DISEASE database, each disease is represented by a list of known disease genes, any known environmental factors at the molecular level, diagnostic markers and therapeutic drugs, which may reflect the underlying molecular system. The KEGG DRUG database contains chemical structures and/or chemical components of all drugs in Japan, including crude drugs and TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine) formulas, and drugs in the USA and Europe. This database also captures knowledge about two types of molecular networks: the interaction network with target molecules, metabolizing enzymes, other drugs, etc. and the chemical structure transformation network in the history of drug development. The new disease/drug information resource named KEGG MEDICUS can be used as a reference knowledge base for computational analysis of molecular networks, especially, by integrating large-scale experimental datasets.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2010:38(Database issue) | 1155 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2021-03-06)
KEGG for linking genomes to life and the environment. [PMID: 18077471]
Kanehisa M, Araki M, Goto S, Hattori M, Hirakawa M, Itoh M, Katayama T, Kawashima S, Okuda S, Tokimatsu T, Yamanishi Y.

KEGG ( is a database of biological systems that integrates genomic, chemical and systemic functional information. KEGG provides a reference knowledge base for linking genomes to life through the process of PATHWAY mapping, which is to map, for example, a genomic or transcriptomic content of genes to KEGG reference pathways to infer systemic behaviors of the cell or the organism. In addition, KEGG provides a reference knowledge base for linking genomes to the environment, such as for the analysis of drug-target relationships, through the process of BRITE mapping. KEGG BRITE is an ontology database representing functional hierarchies of various biological objects, including molecules, cells, organisms, diseases and drugs, as well as relationships among them. KEGG PATHWAY is now supplemented with a new global map of metabolic pathways, which is essentially a combined map of about 120 existing pathway maps. In addition, smaller pathway modules are defined and stored in KEGG MODULE that also contains other functional units and complexes. The KEGG resource is being expanded to suit the needs for practical applications. KEGG DRUG contains all approved drugs in the US and Japan, and KEGG DISEASE is a new database linking disease genes, pathways, drugs and diagnostic markers.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2008:36(Database issue) | 2211 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2021-03-06)
Gene annotation and pathway mapping in KEGG. [PMID: 18025687]
Kiyoko F Aoki-Kinoshita, Minoru Kanehisa,

KEGG is a database resource ( that provides all knowledge about genomes and their relationships to biological systems such as cells and whole organisms as well as their interactions with the environment. KEGG is categorized in terms of building blocks in the genomic space, known as KEGG GENES, the chemical space, KEGG LIGAND, as well as wiring diagrams of interaction and reaction networks, known as KEGG PATHWAY. A fourth database called KEGG BRITE was also recently incorporated to provide computerized annotations and pathway reconstruction based on the current KEGG knowledgebase. KEGG BRITE contains KEGG Orthology (KO), a classification of ortholog and paralog groups based on highly confident sequence similarity scores, and the reaction classification system for biochemical reaction classification, along with other classifications for compounds and drugs. BRITE is also the basis for the KEGG Automatic Annotation Server (KAAS), which automatically annotates a given set of genes and correspondingly generates pathway maps. This chapter introduces KEGG and its various tools for genomic analyses, focusing on the usage of the KEGG GENES, PATHWAY, and BRITE resources and the KAAS tool (see Note 1).

Methods Mol. Biol.. 2007:396() | 125 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2021-03-06)
KEGG bioinformatics resource for plant genomics research. [PMID: 18287706]
Masoudi-Nejad A, Goto S, Endo TR, Kanehisa M.

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) is a bioinformatics resource for understanding biological function from a genomic perspective. It is a multispecies, integrated resource consisting of genomic, chemical, and network information, with cross-references to numerous outside databases and containing a complete set of building blocks (genes and molecules) and wiring diagrams (biological pathways) to represent cellular functions. KEGG consists of a suite of databases: PATHWAY, GENES/Sequence Similarity Database (SSDB), Biomolecular Relations in Information Transmission and Expression (BRITE), and LIGAND, which is a composite database of COMPOUND, DRUG, GLYCAN, REACTION, REPAIR, and ENZYME. Two new databases have been recently added to KEGG: DGENES (for draft genomes) and EGENES (for expressed-sequence tag [EST] data). EGENES is a knowledge base system for efficient analysis of organism-specific ESTs, including publicly available plant ESTs. EGENES links the genomic information with higher order functional information in a single database. The genomic information stored in EGENES is a collection of EST contigs, produced by assembling the public ESTs. In this chapter, we will introduce KEGG and discuss its importance for the plant research community by focusing on EGENES. Because all the resources in KEGG follow the same architecture and design, an appraisal of EGENES should give readers an idea of the available information stored in KEGG and how to use them efficiently.

Methods Mol Biol. 2007:406() | 16 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2021-03-06)
From genomics to chemical genomics: new developments in KEGG. [PMID: 16381885]
Kanehisa M, Goto S, Hattori M, Aoki-Kinoshita KF, Itoh M, Kawashima S, Katayama T, Araki M, Hirakawa M.

The increasing amount of genomic and molecular information is the basis for understanding higher-order biological systems, such as the cell and the organism, and their interactions with the environment, as well as for medical, industrial and other practical applications. The KEGG resource ( provides a reference knowledge base for linking genomes to biological systems, categorized as building blocks in the genomic space (KEGG GENES) and the chemical space (KEGG LIGAND), and wiring diagrams of interaction networks and reaction networks (KEGG PATHWAY). A fourth component, KEGG BRITE, has been formally added to the KEGG suite of databases. This reflects our attempt to computerize functional interpretations as part of the pathway reconstruction process based on the hierarchically structured knowledge about the genomic, chemical and network spaces. In accordance with the new chemical genomics initiatives, the scope of KEGG LIGAND has been significantly expanded to cover both endogenous and exogenous molecules. Specifically, RPAIR contains curated chemical structure transformation patterns extracted from known enzymatic reactions, which would enable analysis of genome-environment interactions, such as the prediction of new reactions and new enzyme genes that would degrade new environmental compounds. Additionally, drug information is now stored separately and linked to new KEGG DRUG structure maps.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2006:34(Database issue) | 1435 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2021-03-06)
KEGG as a glycome informatics resource. [PMID: 16014746]
Kosuke Hashimoto, Susumu Goto, Shin Kawano, Kiyoko F Aoki-Kinoshita, Nobuhisa Ueda, Masami Hamajima, Toshisuke Kawasaki, Minoru Kanehisa,

Bioinformatics approaches to carbohydrate research have recently begun using large amounts of protein and carbohydrate data. In this field called glycome informatics, the foremost necessity is a comprehensive resource for genome-scale bioinformatics analysis of glycan data. Although the accumulation of experimental data may be useful as a reference of biological and biochemical information on carbohydrates, this is insufficient for bioinformatics analysis. Thus, we have developed a glycome informatics resource ( in KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes), an integrated knowledge base of protein networks, genomic information, and chemical information. This review describes three noteworthy features: (1) GLYCAN, a database of carbohydrate structures; (2) glycan-related pathways; and (3) Composite Structure Map (CSM), a map illustrating all possible variations of carbohydrate structures within organisms. GLYCAN includes two useful tools: an intuitive drawing tool called KegDraw, and an efficient glycan search and alignment tool called KEGG Carbohydrate Matcher (KCaM). KEGG's glycan biosynthesis and metabolism pathways, integrating carbohydrate structures, proteins, and reactions, are also a pivotal resource. CSM is constructed as a bridge between carbohydrate functions and structures. CSM is able to display, for example, expression data of glycosyltransferases in a compact manner. In all the KEGG resources, various objects including KEGG pathways, chemical compounds, as well as carbohydrate structures are commonly represented as graphs, which are widely studied and utilized in the computer science field.

Glycobiology. 2006:16(5) | 107 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2021-03-06)
The KEGG resource for deciphering the genome. [PMID: 14681412]
Kanehisa M, Goto S, Kawashima S, Okuno Y, Hattori M.

A grand challenge in the post-genomic era is a complete computer representation of the cell and the organism, which will enable computational prediction of higher-level complexity of cellular processes and organism behavior from genomic information. Toward this end we have been developing a knowledge-based approach for network prediction, which is to predict, given a complete set of genes in the genome, the protein interaction networks that are responsible for various cellular processes. KEGG at is the reference knowledge base that integrates current knowledge on molecular interaction networks such as pathways and complexes (PATHWAY database), information about genes and proteins generated by genome projects (GENES/SSDB/KO databases) and information about biochemical compounds and reactions (COMPOUND/GLYCAN/REACTION databases). These three types of database actually represent three graph objects, called the protein network, the gene universe and the chemical universe. New efforts are being made to abstract knowledge, both computationally and manually, about ortholog clusters in the KO (KEGG Orthology) database, and to collect and analyze carbohydrate structures in the GLYCAN database.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2004:32(Database issue) | 1944 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2021-03-06)
The KEGG databases at GenomeNet. [PMID: 11752249]
Kanehisa M, Goto S, Kawashima S, Nakaya A.

The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) is the primary database resource of the Japanese GenomeNet service ( for understanding higher order functional meanings and utilities of the cell or the organism from its genome information. KEGG consists of the PATHWAY database for the computerized knowledge on molecular interaction networks such as pathways and complexes, the GENES database for the information about genes and proteins generated by genome sequencing projects, and the LIGAND database for the information about chemical compounds and chemical reactions that are relevant to cellular processes. In addition to these three main databases, limited amounts of experimental data for microarray gene expression profiles and yeast two-hybrid systems are stored in the EXPRESSION and BRITE databases, respectively. Furthermore, a new database, named SSDB, is available for exploring the universe of all protein coding genes in the complete genomes and for identifying functional links and ortholog groups. The data objects in the KEGG databases are all represented as graphs and various computational methods are developed to detect graph features that can be related to biological functions. For example, the correlated clusters are graph similarities which can be used to predict a set of genes coding for a pathway or a complex, as summarized in the ortholog group tables, and the cliques in the SSDB graph are used to annotate genes. The KEGG databases are updated daily and made freely available (

Nucleic Acids Res. 2002:30(1) | 594 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2021-03-06)
The KEGG database. [PMID: 12539951]
Minoru Kanehisa,

KEGG ( is a suite of databases and associated software for understanding and simulating higher-order functional behaviours of the cell or the organism from its genome information. First, KEGG computerizes data and knowledge on protein interaction networks (PATHWAY database) and chemical reactions (LIGAND database) that are responsible for various cellular processes. Second, KEGG attempts to reconstruct protein interaction networks for all organisms whose genomes are completely sequenced (GENES and SSDB databases). Third, KEGG can be utilized as reference knowledge for functional genomics (EXPRESSION database) and proteomics (BRITE database) experiments. I will review the current status of KEGG and report on new developments in graph representation and graph computations.

Novartis Found. Symp.. 2002:247() | 403 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2021-03-06)
KEGG: kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes. [PMID: 10592173]
Kanehisa M, Goto S.

KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) is a knowledge base for systematic analysis of gene functions, linking genomic information with higher order functional information. The genomic information is stored in the GENES database, which is a collection of gene catalogs for all the completely sequenced genomes and some partial genomes with up-to-date annotation of gene functions. The higher order functional information is stored in the PATHWAY database, which contains graphical representations of cellular processes, such as metabolism, membrane transport, signal transduction and cell cycle. The PATHWAY database is supplemented by a set of ortholog group tables for the information about conserved subpathways (pathway motifs), which are often encoded by positionally coupled genes on the chromosome and which are especially useful in predicting gene functions. A third database in KEGG is LIGAND for the information about chemical compounds, enzyme molecules and enzymatic reactions. KEGG provides Java graphics tools for browsing genome maps, comparing two genome maps and manipulating expression maps, as well as computational tools for sequence comparison, graph comparison and path computation. The KEGG databases are daily updated and made freely available (http://www.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2000:28(1) | 8663 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2021-03-06)
KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. [PMID: 9847135]
Ogata H, Goto S, Sato K, Fujibuchi W, Bono H, Kanehisa M.

Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) is a knowledge base for systematic analysis of gene functions in terms of the networks of genes and molecules. The major component of KEGG is the PATHWAY database that consists of graphical diagrams of biochemical pathways including most of the known metabolic pathways and some of the known regulatory pathways. The pathway information is also represented by the ortholog group tables summarizing orthologous and paralogous gene groups among different organisms. KEGG maintains the GENES database for the gene catalogs of all organisms with complete genomes and selected organisms with partial genomes, which are continuously re-annotated, as well as the LIGAND database for chemical compounds and enzymes. Each gene catalog is associated with the graphical genome map for chromosomal locations that is represented by Java applet. In addition to the data collection efforts, KEGG develops and provides various computational tools, such as for reconstructing biochemical pathways from the complete genome sequence and for predicting gene regulatory networks from the gene expression profiles. The KEGG databases are daily updated and made freely available (

Nucleic Acids Res. 1999:27(1) | 1803 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2021-03-06)


All databases:
2/4816 (99.979%)
1/335 (100%)
Standard ontology and nomenclature:
1/201 (100%)
Gene genome and annotation:
2/1333 (99.925%)
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Record metadata

Created on: 2015-06-20
Curated by:
lin liu [2021-02-18]
lin liu [2021-01-22]
Chang Liu [2020-11-10]
Dong Zou [2019-01-04]
Lina Ma [2018-06-07]
Shixiang Sun [2017-02-15]
Chunlei Yu [2016-04-17]
Chunlei Yu [2016-03-31]
lin liu [2016-02-02]
lin liu [2016-01-17]
Zhang Zhang [2015-06-23]