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a catalog of biological databases

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Database information

General information

Description: A database of functional genomics experiments, including microarray and RNAseq expression data typically related to publications. It is one of the repositories recommended by major scientific journals to archive functional genomics data to support reproducible research.
Year founded: 2003
Last update: 2019-4-15
Real time : Checking...
Country/Region: United Kingdom
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Contact information

University/Institution: European Bioinformatics Institute
Address: Hinxton,CB10 1SD,UK
City: Cambridge
Country/Region: United Kingdom
Contact name (PI/Team): Alvis Brazma
Contact email (PI/Helpdesk):

Record metadata

Created on: 2015-06-20
Curated by:
Lina Ma [2019-04-15]
Dong Zou [2019-01-03]
Dong Zou [2018-02-07]
Mengwei Li [2016-03-31]
Mengwei Li [2016-02-21]
Mengwei Li [2016-02-18]
Mengwei Li [2015-11-26]
Lina Ma [2015-06-28]
Mengwei Li [2015-06-26]


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12/843 (98.695%)
5/445 (99.101%)
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ArrayExpress update - from bulk to single-cell expression data. [PMID: 30357387]
Athar A, Füllgrabe A, George N, Iqbal H, Huerta L, Ali A, Snow C, Fonseca NA, Petryszak R, Papatheodorou I, Sarkans U, Brazma A.

ArrayExpress ( is an archive of functional genomics data from a variety of technologies assaying functional modalities of a genome, such as gene expression or promoter occupancy. The number of experiments based on sequencing technologies, in particular RNA-seq experiments, has been increasing over the last few years and submissions of sequencing data have overtaken microarray experiments in the last 12 months. Additionally, there is a significant increase in experiments investigating single cells, rather than bulk samples, known as single-cell RNA-seq. To accommodate these trends, we have substantially changed our submission tool Annotare which, along with raw and processed data, collects all metadata necessary to interpret these experiments. Selected datasets are re-processed and loaded into our sister resource, the value-added Expression Atlas (and its component Single Cell Expression Atlas), which not only enables users to interpret the data easily but also serves as a test for data quality. With an increasing number of studies that combine different assay modalities (multi-omics experiments), a new more general archival resource the BioStudies Database has been developed, which will eventually supersede ArrayExpress. Data submissions will continue unchanged; all existing ArrayExpress data will be incorporated into BioStudies and the existing accession numbers and application programming interfaces will be maintained.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2019:47(D1) | 25 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2020-09-12)
ArrayExpress update--simplifying data submissions. [PMID: 25361974]
Kolesnikov N, Hastings E, Keays M, Melnichuk O, Tang YA, Williams E, Dylag M, Kurbatova N, Brandizi M, Burdett T, Megy K, Pilicheva E, Rustici G, Tikhonov A, Parkinson H, Petryszak R, Sarkans U, Brazma A.

The ArrayExpress Archive of Functional Genomics Data ( is an international functional genomics database at the European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) recommended by most journals as a repository for data supporting peer-reviewed publications. It contains data from over 7000 public sequencing and 42,000 array-based studies comprising over 1.5 million assays in total. The proportion of sequencing-based submissions has grown significantly over the last few years and has doubled in the last 18 months, whilst the rate of microarray submissions is growing slightly. All data in ArrayExpress are available in the MAGE-TAB format, which allows robust linking to data analysis and visualization tools and standardized analysis. The main development over the last two years has been the release of a new data submission tool Annotare, which has reduced the average submission time almost 3-fold. In the near future, Annotare will become the only submission route into ArrayExpress, alongside MAGE-TAB format-based pipelines. ArrayExpress is a stable and highly accessed resource. Our future tasks include automation of data flows and further integration with other EMBL-EBI resources for the representation of multi-omics data. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2015:43(Database issue) | 325 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2020-09-19)
ArrayExpress update--trends in database growth and links to data analysis tools. [PMID: 23193272]
Rustici G, Kolesnikov N, Brandizi M, Burdett T, Dylag M, Emam I, Farne A, Hastings E, Ison J, Keays M, Kurbatova N, Malone J, Mani R, Mupo A, Pedro Pereira R, Pilicheva E, Rung J, Sharma A, Tang YA, Ternent T, Tikhonov A, Welter D, Williams E, Brazma A, Parkinson H, Sarkans U.

The ArrayExpress Archive of Functional Genomics Data ( is one of three international functional genomics public data repositories, alongside the Gene Expression Omnibus at NCBI and the DDBJ Omics Archive, supporting peer-reviewed publications. It accepts data generated by sequencing or array-based technologies and currently contains data from almost a million assays, from over 30 000 experiments. The proportion of sequencing-based submissions has grown significantly over the last 2 years and has reached, in 2012, 15% of all new data. All data are available from ArrayExpress in MAGE-TAB format, which allows robust linking to data analysis and visualization tools, including Bioconductor and GenomeSpace. Additionally, R objects, for microarray data, and binary alignment format files, for sequencing data, have been generated for a significant proportion of ArrayExpress data.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2013:41(Database issue) | 219 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2020-09-19)
ArrayExpress update--from an archive of functional genomics experiments to the atlas of gene expression. [PMID: 19015125]
Parkinson H, Kapushesky M, Kolesnikov N, Rustici G, Shojatalab M, Abeygunawardena N, Berube H, Dylag M, Emam I, Farne A, Holloway E, Lukk M, Malone J, Mani R, Pilicheva E, Rayner TF, Rezwan F, Sharma A, Williams E, Bradley XZ, Adamusiak T, Brandizi M, Burdett T, Coulson R, Krestyaninova M, Kurnosov P, Maguire E, Neogi SG, Rocca-Serra P, Sansone SA, Sklyar N, Zhao M, Sarkans U, Brazma A.

ArrayExpress consists of three components: the ArrayExpress Repository--a public archive of functional genomics experiments and supporting data, the ArrayExpress Warehouse--a database of gene expression profiles and other bio-measurements and the ArrayExpress Atlas--a new summary database and meta-analytical tool of ranked gene expression across multiple experiments and different biological conditions. The Repository contains data from over 6000 experiments comprising approximately 200,000 assays, and the database doubles in size every 15 months. The majority of the data are array based, but other data types are included, most recently-ultra high-throughput sequencing transcriptomics and epigenetic data. The Warehouse and Atlas allow users to query for differentially expressed genes by gene names and properties, experimental conditions and sample properties, or a combination of both. In this update, we describe the ArrayExpress developments over the last two years.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2009:37(Database issue) | 252 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2020-09-19)
ArrayExpress--a public repository for microarray gene expression data at the EBI. [PMID: 15608260]
Parkinson H, Sarkans U, Shojatalab M, Abeygunawardena N, Contrino S, Coulson R, Farne A, Lara GG, Holloway E, Kapushesky M, Lilja P, Mukherjee G, Oezcimen A, Rayner T, Rocca-Serra P, Sharma A, Sansone S, Brazma A.

ArrayExpress is a public repository for microarray data that supports the MIAME (Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment) requirements and stores well-annotated raw and normalized data. As of November 2004, ArrayExpress contains data from approximately 12,000 hybridizations covering 35 species. Data can be submitted online or directly from local databases or LIMS in a standard format, and password-protected access to prepublication data is provided for reviewers and authors. The data can be retrieved by accession number or queried by various parameters such as species, author and array platform. A facility to query experiments by gene and sample properties is provided for a growing subset of curated data that is loaded in to the ArrayExpress data warehouse. Data can be visualized and analysed using Expression Profiler, the integrated data analysis tool. ArrayExpress is available at

Nucleic Acids Res. 2005:33(Database issue) | 173 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2020-09-19)
The ArrayExpress gene expression database: a software engineering and implementation perspective. [PMID: 15564302]
Sarkans U, Parkinson H, Lara GG, Oezcimen A, Sharma A, Abeygunawardena N, Contrino S, Holloway E, Rocca-Serra P, Mukherjee G, Shojatalab M, Kapushesky M, Sansone SA, Farne A, Rayner T, Brazma A.

MOTIVATION: The lack of microarray data management systems and databases is still one of the major problems faced by many life sciences laboratories. While developing the public repository for microarray data ArrayExpress we had to find novel solutions to many non-trivial software engineering problems. Our experience will be both relevant and useful for most bioinformaticians involved in developing information systems for a wide range of high-throughput technologies.
RESULTS: ArrayExpress has been online since February 2002, growing exponentially to well over 10,000 hybridizations (as of September 2004). It has been demonstrated that our chosen design and implementation works for databases aimed at storage, access and sharing of high-throughput data.
AVAILABILITY: The ArrayExpress database is available at The software is open source.

Bioinformatics. 2005:21(8) | 13 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2020-09-19)
ArrayExpress: a public database of gene expression data at EBI. [PMID: 14744115]
Rocca-Serra P, Brazma A, Parkinson H, Sarkans U, Shojatalab M, Contrino S, Vilo J, Abeygunawardena N, Mukherjee G, Holloway E, Kapushesky M, Kemmeren P, Lara GG, Oezcimen A, Sansone SA.

ArrayExpress is a public repository for microarray-based gene expression data, resulting from the implementation of the MAGE object model to ensure accurate data structuring and the MIAME standard, which defines the annotation requirements. ArrayExpress accepts data as MAGE-ML files for direct submissions or data from MIAMExpress, the MIAME compliant web-based annotation and submission tool of EBI. A team of curators supports the submission process, providing assistance in data annotation. Data retrieval is performed through a dedicated web interface. Relevant results may be exported to ExpressionProfiler, the EBI based expression analysis tool available online (

C R Biol. 2003:326(10-11) | 39 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2020-09-19)
ArrayExpress--a public repository for microarray gene expression data at the EBI. [PMID: 12519949]
Brazma A, Parkinson H, Sarkans U, Shojatalab M, Vilo J, Abeygunawardena N, Holloway E, Kapushesky M, Kemmeren P, Lara GG, Oezcimen A, Rocca-Serra P, Sansone SA.

ArrayExpress is a new public database of microarray gene expression data at the EBI, which is a generic gene expression database designed to hold data from all microarray platforms. ArrayExpress uses the annotation standard Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment (MIAME) and the associated XML data exchange format Microarray Gene Expression Markup Language (MAGE-ML) and it is designed to store well annotated data in a structured way. The ArrayExpress infrastructure consists of the database itself, data submissions in MAGE-ML format or via an online submission tool MIAMExpress, online database query interface, and the Expression Profiler online analysis tool. ArrayExpress accepts three types of submission, arrays, experiments and protocols, each of these is assigned an accession number. Help on data submission and annotation is provided by the curation team. The database can be queried on parameters such as author, laboratory, organism, experiment or array types. With an increasing number of organisations adopting MAGE-ML standard, the volume of submissions to ArrayExpress is increasing rapidly. The database can be accessed at

Nucleic Acids Res. 2003:31(1) | 419 Citations (from Europe PMC, 2020-09-12)