||The Marco Polo Sheep (Ovis ammon polii) is a subspecies of argali sheep (Ovis ammon), named after the explorer Marco Polo and first described scientifically in 1841 by Edward Blyth. This species was mainly distributed in the Pamir Mountains, which rugged ranges at elevations of 3,500-5,200 m. Their habitat including the Tajikistan Pamir Mountains, as well as in limited regions in China, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Kyrgyzstan. Due to the sheep’s impressive long horn, foreign hunters are willing to pay large amounts of money for a hunt and this status still retains today. Recent studies on the status of the argali population have shown a decline in numbers mainly caused by over-hunting and subsistence poaching, as well as competition with the livestock and habitat loss. O. ammon has been categorized in several lists, such as the Appendix II of CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) and the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resource Red List), as vulnerable or near threatened species. Therefore, measures of conservation and restoration are needed and its genomics information is definitely fundamental to formulate a comprehensive conservation strategy.