||To explore the mechanisms controlling erythroid differentiation and development, we analyzed the genomewide
transcription dynamics occurring during the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) into
the erythroid lineage and development of embryonic to adult erythropoiesis using high throughput sequencing
technology. HESCs and erythroid cells at three developmental stages: ESER (embryonic), FLER (fetal), and PBER
(adult) were analyzed. Our findings revealed that the number of expressed genes decreased during differentiation,
whereas the total expression intensity increased. At each of the three transitions (HESCs–ESERs, ESERs–
FLERs, and FLERs–PBERs), many differentially expressed genes were observed, which were involved in
maintaining pluripotency, early erythroid specification, rapid cell growth, and cell–cell adhesion and interaction.
We also discovered dynamic networks and their central nodes in each transition. Our study provides a fundamental
basis for further investigation of erythroid differentiation and development, and has implications in
using ESERs for transfusion product in clinical settings.